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Let's try to collect and translate a lot of typographical terms...

Please add English terms in alphabetical order. Fill the "ConTeXt" column if ConTeXt uses a different term or for a link. The Description should be rather short (feel free to enhance existing ones). Add translations with an uppercase language code in alphabetical order of that code, separated by commas.

English ConTeXt Description Translations
German French Dutch Russian
baseline the "line" on which letters without extenders seem to stand Grundlinie ligne de pied/ligne de base basisregel базовая линия
baseline skip the space between two lines of text, from baseline to baseline Zeilenabstand interlignage interlinie интерлиньяж
body (text) continuous text Fließtext texte courant broodtext основное содержание
body font the font used for most of the text Grundschrift police de labeur broodletter
bold \bf font style (halb)fett gras vet полужирный
caps uppercase letters Großbuchstaben / Versalien grandes capitales kapitalen прописные буквы
cover "wrapping" of the book content Umschlag couverture omslag обложка
en the width of an n (font dependent), half an em Halbgeviert demi-cadratin halfkwadraat (?)
en dash -- A dash of width 1 en Halbgeviertstrich / Gedankenstrich tiret sur demi-cadratin короткое тире
em the width of an m (font dependent) Geviert cadratin kwadraat / concordans (?)
em dash --- A dash of width 1 em Geviertstrich tiret sur cadratin kastlijntje тире
file Datei fichier bestand файл
font A collection of glyphs used to represent text Schrift fonte lettertype / font шрифт
font family a number of font faces (often 4) that are designed to be used together Schriftfamilie police d’écriture/police de caractères/police
font "super family" collection several font families that are designed to work together, e.g. Serif, Sans and Mono, like Computer Modern Schriftsippe Famille de polices
gothic fonts old font style, where curves are broken into straight lines Gebrochene Schriften / Frakturschriften fractures/gothiques
grid setting grid typesetting text, keeping lines on an (invisible) fixed "grid", i.e. lines are at the same position on every page registerhaltiger Satz registre/grille geregistreerd (zetwerk)
header (text) header text Kolumnentitel en-tête koptekst
hyphen - a short dash, used to join compound words Trennstrich / Divis trait d’union afbreekstreep дефис
hyphenation splitting a word over multiple lines, and the rules for doing so Silbentrennung coupure de mot/division afbreking перенос
image processing Bildbearbeitung / EBV traitement d’image beeldverwerking
imprint metadata in a print product (publisher, ISBN etc.) Impressum métadonnées / données bibliographiques
index \index Register index register предметный указатель
initial a large letter (usually 2-3 lines high) that starts the first word of a chapter or section Initial lettrine initiaal буквица
italic \it font style kursiv italique cursief курсив
gutter margin where the book gets bound Bundsteg переплёт
line Zeile ligne regel строка
lowercase \word, \words Kleinbuchstaben / Gemeine bas de casse onderkast строчные буквы
margin Rand marge marge поле
oldstyle \os number style for body text, numbers have proportional width and are mostly x-height size mediäval (chiffre) elzévirien
page Seite page pagina страница
page number Seitenzahl / Pagina folio/numéro de page/pagination paginanummer номер страницы
page style makeup A page layout with special headers, footers, and text placement like e.g. a title page aufbau opmaak
perfect binding book pages are glued to the cover Klebebindung dos collé клеевое скрепление
(printing) press the machine that prints the ink on the paper Druckmaschine presse drukpers печатный станок
printshop company/workshop for printing Druckerei imprimerie drukker типография
process colors (CMYK) the four printing inks used in professional printing Prozessfarben quadrichromie processkleuren основные краски (голбая пурпурная жёлтая)
quote, quotation a piece of text by another author Zitat citation citaat цитата
quotation marks \quote, \quotation punctuation which enclose quotes Anführungszeichen / Gänsefüßchen guillemets aanhalingstekens кавычки
sans serif (font) \ss font without serifs Serifenlose (Schrift) / Grotesk linéale/grotesque/police sans empattements/police « bâton » schreefloos (font) (шрифт) без засечек
serif (font) \rm Serifenschrift / Antiqua police romaine romein (шрифт) с засечками
slanted \sl slanting font style schräg / geschrägt oblique schuin наклонный (шрифт)
small caps \sc uppercase letters of x-height size Kapitälchen petites capitales kleinkapitaal капитель
spot colors printing inks other than CMYK (e.g. Pantone) Sonderfarben NL: spotkleur (?)
title Titel / Überschrift titre titel заголовок
table of contents (toc) Inhaltsverzeichnis sommaire (au début)/ table des matières (à la fin) inhoudsopgave оглавление
typewriter font \tt fixed-width (mono-space) characters Schreibmaschinenschrift police à chasse fixe машинописный шрифт
uppercase \WORD, \WORDS Großbuchstaben / Versalien grandes capitales/haut de casse bovenkast прописная буква
verbose wörtlich / ausführlich
x-height height of lower-case glyphs, like x Mittelhöhe / x-Höhe œil/hauteur d’x x-hoogte